Competitive ELISA is a method used to measure the concentration of a particular antigen in a complex mixture. The method uses a reporter enzyme to determine the concentration of the target antigen. Samples containing a high amount of antigen bind to the primary detection protein, while samples with a low concentration bind to the unlabeled antigen. Color development is then achieved using chromogenic substrate.
In sandwich ELISA, the target antigen is coated on a multi-well plate. Another antibody is added to form an antigen-antibody complex. The sample is then added to the plate, where the antigen-antibody complexes are formed. The antigen-antibody complexes resulting from the reaction are then measured. Competitive ELISA assays can also be adapted to previous formats.
In a competitive ELISA, the target analyte binds to one of the antibodies, rather than two. These competitive ELISAs are used for samples that are too small to sandwich two antibodies. The capture antibody is coated on the microplate, and the conjugated antigen completes the binding process with the antigen present in the sample. The more antigen that binds to the capture antibody, the higher the signal.
When comparing the competitive ELISA with a noncompetitive ELISA, it is best to measure the same concentration of the target protein with a competing antigen. The sensitivity limit of a competitive ELISA for undiluted sera is 0.10 mg/ml. The correlation between competitive and noncompetitive ELISA is 0.9714, 0.9973, and 0.7618, respectively.
The optimal coating conditions of an ELISA competitive assay vary with the protein and antibody used. Coating the plates with more capture protein than the target protein is able to bind is important for obtaining the largest detection range. However, some proteins are best coated at lower concentrations than their maximum binding capacity to avoid nonspecific binding and hooking. The unbound proteins are unable to wash out effectively. This means that the ELISA competitive assay is useful for measuring low-molecular-weight targets.
The results of competitive ELISA are comparable with those of RABA. However, a competitive ELISA has better correlation with RABA, and it can replace RABA in some cases. In spite of these problems, competitive ELISAs are a better choice for anti-HibCPS total Ig measurements. While this technique has its limitations, it is still an effective alternative to RABA in vaccinated populations.
When compared to the noncompetitive ELISA, the results of the competitive ELISA are almost identical. When the two methods are used for the same purpose, the competitive ELISA results have higher correlations than those of RABA. However, this correlation is not significant. Therefore, the competitive ELISA is an ideal choice for clinical trials. But before you choose a competitive ELISA, make sure to read the literature on the subject.
CHO cells that are deficient in DHFR are co-transfected with mammalian expression vectors encoding the polypeptide of interest fused to a histidine-tag sequence. Competition ELISA measures the amount of polypeptide expression in these cells. Normal human plasma samples were obtained from 20 donors and processed in the same way as the specific IgG. They served as negative controls in the experiment.
In a comparative study, it was determined that the histidine-tagged IL-18BP can be measured by a competitive ELISA method when used in crude preparations. In the assay, the recombinant protein was dissolved in growth medium and assay buffer. The results from the competitive assay were similar for both cultures. This proves the feasibility of the method for quantitative evaluation of IL-18BP.
ELISA assays have four major types: direct ELISA, sandwich ELISA, and ELISA with substrate. Direct ELISA uses only one antibody to detect the target antigen, making it less specific than sandwich ELISA. It is commonly used to examine antibody affinity and to investigate blocking/inhibitory interactions. These four main types are discussed below. There are also several variants of competitive ELISA.
ELISA is a popular method for quantitative quantification of a specific antigen. Samples used for ELISA include serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, and cell lysates. ELISA is generally performed in 96-well microplates. A capture antibody binds to an antigen, while the detection antibody binds to an antigen linked to an enzyme. The substrate solution is added to the samples, and the resulting signal is proportional to the amount of antigen bound. After detection, it is better to clean the plate with ELISA washer.
Indirect ELISA is a more sensitive method for analyzing immune responses. This method involves two steps: an unlabeled primary antibody binds to a specific antigen, and an enzyme conjugated secondary antibody is directed against the host species of the primary antibody. This technique has high sensitivity, and it is often used to monitor anti-heparin antibodies in patients with inflammatory disorders.